05 Sep 2023

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Scientific Reports volume 13, Article number: 14605 (2023)
Metrics details
The patients’ vocal Parkinson’s disease (PD) changes could be identified early on, allowing for management before physically incapacitating symptoms appear. In this work, static as well as dynamic speech characteristics that are relevant to PD identification are examined. Speech changes or communication issues are among the challenges that Parkinson’s individuals may encounter. As a result, avoiding the potential consequences of speech difficulties brought on by the condition depends on getting the appropriate diagnosis early. PD patients’ speech signals change significantly from those of healthy individuals. This research presents a hybrid model utilizing improved speech signals with dynamic feature breakdown using CNN and LSTM. The proposed hybrid model employs a new, pre-trained CNN with LSTM to recognize PD in linguistic features utilizing Mel-spectrograms derived from normalized voice signal and dynamic mode decomposition. The proposed Hybrid model works in various phases, which include Noise removal, extraction of Mel-spectrograms, feature extraction using pre-trained CNN model ResNet-50, and the final stage is applied for classification. An experimental analysis was performed using the PC-GITA disease dataset. The proposed hybrid model is compared with traditional NN and well-known machine learning-based CART and SVM & XGBoost models. The accuracy level achieved in Neural Network, CART, SVM, and XGBoost models is 72.69%, 84.21%, 73.51%, and 90.81%. The results show that under these four machine approaches of tenfold cross-validation and dataset splitting without samples overlapping one individual, the proposed hybrid model achieves an accuracy of 93.51%, significantly outperforming traditional ML models utilizing static features in detecting Parkinson’s disease.
Dopamine levels in the brain are reduced in Parkinson’s disease, a degenerative neurological condition. It shows up as a worsening of movement, including stiffness and tremors. Speech is frequently significantly affected, leading to difficulty articulating sounds (dysarthria), lowered volume (hypophonia), and reduced pitch range (monotone). In addition, there is a higher risk of developing dementia and cognitive and mood disorders1. The patient must frequently attend the clinic to monitor the disease’s course over time. An efficient screening procedure would be advantageous, especially one that doesn’t call for a clinic visit. Voice recordings are non-invasive and helpful diagnostic tools since patients have distinctive vocal characteristics2. This would be a good screening step before a consultation with a doctor if machine learning algorithms could be used to diagnose this disease using a dataset of voice recordings precisely. Disabilities in both the motor and linguistic components of speech output are included in the spectrum of functional speech sound disorders. These conditions have previously been known as articulation disorders and phonological disorders. Mistakes (such as omissions or substitutions) in articulating words and phrases are the primary focus of articulation disorders3.
Scientists are still trying to figure out why neurons degenerate. The difficulty of adequately adjusting and fine-tuning pharmacological treatment, which involves both prescribed amount and intake frequency, is a significant issue for a person with this disease4. From the patient’s perspective, it is crucial to provide support for tracking these disease symptoms to reduce treatment bias. In addition to providing lower expenses for the patient, it also extends the time during which the prescribed mono-polytherapy treatment may be used, reducing the danger of drug tolerance. A sound speech issue may be suspected when a kid is having trouble communicating. Thus a complete speech and language examination is performed. The screening aims to identify individuals who require additional speech-language assessment and referral for further professional assistance5. Neurologists typically use practical treatment approaches that may be unproductive for various reasons; the medication composition and dose play a significant role in optimizing the prescribed amount and design of the medicine6. Lower dosages are helpful in the early stages of treatment, as can be seen. However, traditional approaches solely use neurological consultations, rendering the adjustment process inert. Phonological disorders are characterized by repeating common, rule-based mistakes across various sounds. Many researchers and clinicians prefer the more inclusive phrase “speech sound disorder” when referring to speech defects of the unknown source because of the difficulty distinguishing between articulation and phonological issues7. The development of portable, individual gadgets, such as customized smartphones linked with wearable sensors, can provide new ways to analyze the quantitative symptoms of diseases. The tool described in the research is intended to assess disease symptoms, which obliquely supports the assessment of medicine dosage and usage8. Vocal evaluation in early-stage PD has shown indicators of dysfunction such as vocal roughness, breathiness, reduced loudness, limited vocal range, mono-pitch, and minor vocal tremor within five years of initial diagnosis, with untreated patients and as early as five years before diagnosis. Parkinson’s has four key symptoms:
A tremor in the head, hands, legs, arms, or jaw
Muscle rigidity occurs when muscles are repeatedly contracted.
Unresponsiveness of movement
Compromised cooperation and balance can cause falls
Additional symptoms can also include:
other emotional changes, including depression
swallowing, chewing, and speaking challenges
constipation or issues with the urethra
Skin issues
Each person has a unique set of Parkinson’s symptoms and rate of development. Dysarthria affects people with Parkinson’s disease PD from an early stage. PD patients and healthy people’s pronunciation of speech sounds are pretty different. A neurodegenerative condition that affects the central nervous system is Parkinson’s disease. The substantial Nigra’s neuronal death, which lowers dopamine levels and causes an accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein to form Lewy bodies, is the cause. However, the diagnosis is based on outward manifestations of the disease, such as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, postural volatility, and uneven motor symptoms9. Blood tests are performed to rule out other disorders. A positive retort to levodopa is anticipated to confirm the diagnosis. Levodopa is one of the drugs used in treatment; it is a dopamine precursor that can cross the blood–brain barrier and is subsequently converted to dopamine in the brain, increasing dopamine concentration and reducing symptom intensity. Parkinson’s disease medications can have serious adverse effects if administered incorrectly. Overdosing can cause hypotension, dyskinesia, arrhythmias, freezing during movement, and dopamine dysregulation. However, the doses must be high enough to control the symptoms. Clinicians attempt to keep this drug’s dosage as low as feasible while undergoing treatment. This is why it’s essential to precisely forecast the dosage and frequency of medicine intake10. The established method offers a solution for anticipating the amount of medication to take and the best time for people with this disease. The approach provided in this paper is based on the patient profile, which includes his medical history supplied at the beginning and an assessment of his condition using objective and subjective indications (data acquired from sensors). Doctors often use a medical history and neurological examination to diagnose. These features are static and dynamic speech qualities relevant to PD identification11.
This research presents a hybrid model of CNN and LSTM methods. The critical contributions of the study are as follows:
The proposed model utilized improved speech signals with dynamic feature breakdown with LSTM for higher accuracy.
This research utilizes the PC-GITA disease dataset with two classes.
A Pre-trained deep learning model CNN (ResNet-50) is used for training accuracy.
DMD and normalized voice signals are vital parameters.
The proposed hybrid model employs a new, pre-trained CNN with LSTM to recognize PD in linguistic features utilizing Mel-spectrograms derived from normalized voice signals and DMD.
The proposed Hybrid model works in various phases, which include Noise removal, extraction of Mel-spectrograms, feature extraction using pre-trained CNN model ResNet-50, and the final stage is applied for classification.
The proposed model is compared with traditional CNN, well-known machine learning-based models CART, and SVM & XGBoost models.
Experimental analysis shows that the proposed hybrid model achieves an accuracy of 93.51%, significantly outperforming traditional ML models utilizing static features in detecting Parkinson’s disease.
The remainder of the article is structured as follows: Section “Literature review” presents the related work, Section “Material and methods” presents materials and methods, Section “Results and discussion” presents experimental results and analysis, and Section “Conclusion” presents the conclusion and future research work.
Our exploration was restricted to the beyond six years, i.e., 2016–2022. Various creators have accumulated a few survey papers during these six years. Research12 proposed applying the Bidirectional long-transient memory method to catch time series dynamic elements of a discourse signal to distinguish Parkinson’s disease. The recommended way outflanks traditional AI models utilizing static highlights, as exhibited by tests using 10-overlay cross approval (CV) and dataset parting without difficulties from a similar individual covering. Research13 tended to all through clever wearable sensor frameworks and AI calculations. A power sensor, three inertial estimation units (IMUs), and four tailor-made mechanomyography (MMG) sensors were all essential for the sensor framework’s parts. Their treating doctors’ sensor framework and assessments were complicated for 23 people with Parkinson’s. In contrast, ten sound professionals served as a comparison group. There were no considerable contrasts in UPDRS scores between the solid workers and those with Parkinson’s sickness, demonstrating that the framework can dependably guess all side effects (85.14% of the time and 96.36% by and large). Out-of-center remote observing of Parkinson’s illness side effect force and vacillation could benefit MMG capacities. Utilizing this shut-circle criticism framework, we could tweak and refresh treatment for countless patients, bringing about unrivalled results. Research14 introduced a novel pair-wise profound positioning model based on a few patients’ data collected from several ground response force sensors. Two multivariate time series were used as the data sources for positioning by the Siamese recurrent network with attention, which increased the possibility that the significant sign would have a better consistent quality than the secondary sign. With an AUROC of 0.89 and a 10-overlay cross-approval precision of up to 82%, pair-wise positioning forecasts might be relied upon. It outflanked earlier methodologies for checking Parkinson’s illness in similar trial conditions. As far as anyone is concerned, this is the principal study to utilize a pair-wise positioning strategy on tactile information to evaluate PD patients15. Reciprocal to PC helped prognostic instruments, and the model might assess patient advancement while treatment is carried out. Research16 suggested an exchange learning approach based on spectrograms of discourse accounts, followed by an assessment of significant highlights removed from spectrograms by AI classifiers, and finally, in the third technique, an evaluation of a fundamental acoustic element by AI classifiers. Information from the pc-Gita Spanish dataset was utilized to test the systems. There was a proper inclination for the subsequent structure, which had further developed capacities. The profound component-based system performed better than specific acoustic elements and move learning procedures. For Parkinson’s infection recognition, the recommended technique beat the on-going strategies. Research17 broke down 447 recordings gathered utilizing the KELVIN-PD stage, kept in clinical settings at numerous locales, using monetarily accessible versatile shrewd gadgets. 3.9 of the MDS-UPDRS was the focal point of every video, which remembered a seriousness assessment for a 5-point scale given by a certified doctor (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4). For each casing of the films, act central assessment issues were extricated utilizing the profound learning system Open Pose, bringing about time-series signals for each main point. A few boundaries recovered from these signs incorporate speed vacillation and perfection if the patient utilized their hands to propel themselves up and how drooped or upstanding the patient was while sitting and standing. An irregular backwoods classifier was used to prepare an ordinal grouping framework (with one class for every conceivable rating on the UPDRS). In 79% of the movies, the UPDRS appraisals anticipated by this method matched the doctors’ precise evaluations. In 100 per cent of the cases, they were inside one of the clinicians’ careful evaluations. The technique has a responsiveness of 62.8% and an explicitness of 90.3%. Examining misclassified cases demonstrated the framework’s ability to spot potentially incorrectly categorized data18. Research19 broke down the vocal elements of Parkinson’s disease PD and impacted people with refined computational models. At first, the examples were pre-handled, as they contained additional missing qualities. The Adaptive Gray Wolf Optimization Algorithm, a meta-heuristic worldwide inquiry streamlining approach, was then used to pick the indicator up-and-comer subset from the handled voice information. PD impacted and control events were distinguished by using sparse auto-encoders to recover the latent portrayal of the competitor qualities. Six administered AI strategies were utilized for the order20. The information was used to prepare the model, which was then tried utilizing approval measurements and a 10-overlay cross-approval procedure. The exploratory examination utilized information recovered from UCI, Irvine Machine Learning vault. Specialists found that the calculation they conceived beat the benchmarked models, showing its capacity to tell out PD -impacted examples from sound ones. This study’s after-effects highlighted the eight significant features of savvy learning21. Research22 proposed two systems in light of CNN to group PD utilizing sets of discourse highlights. Regardless of how the two structures were used to consolidate numerous capabilities, they contrast in how they are joined. Rather than passing highlights to the 9-layered CNN as data sources, the underlying design amassed a few powers before giving them to the equal information layers straightforwardly associated with the convolution layers. Thus, each equal branch had its arrangement of profound highlights recovered before being consolidated in the union layer. F-Measure and Matthews Correlation Coefficient measures, combined with exactness, were used to analyse the lopsided conveyance of classes in their information. Due to the equal convolution layers utilized in the subsequent system, it could advance profound highlights from each list of capabilities in the trials. As a result, deleting more variables improved the classifiers’ ability to distinguish between healthy individuals and Parkinson’s patients23. A deep multi-facet perceptron (DMLP) classifier was proposed by Research24 for use in research to monitor Parkinson’s disease progression using mobile devices. A cell phone accelerometer in a Parkinson’s disease patient’s pocket was utilized to evaluate their discourse and development designs at various times to decide the seriousness of their exercises. They additionally saw how well each approach characterized the patients into one of these four gatherings. In both datasets, DMLP beat the other trial models. Research25 detailed the top-performing cell phone-based strategy in Parkinson’s disease PD Challenge for the computerized finding of this disease. Using the 3D expansion of accelerometer data, an area within the beneficial working trademark bend of 0.87 was achieved, significantly improving over current cutting-edge draws near. This disease and other neurodegenerative problems that influence versatility can now be analysed at home as per this review. Persistent neurodegenerative sicknesses like Parkinson’s may be observed by wearable gadgets from their engine side effects if they somehow managed to be followed along these lines. Abnormalities disrupted a population-level application of computerized evaluation for Parkinson’s disease PD throughout uncontrolled in-home settings26. They requested ideal calculations to extricate advanced biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease PD from publicly supported development accounts, which were tended to in this paper. They produced the immediate spot reply. Information expansion approaches were utilized to neutralize the spatial and fleeting predispositions in different development accounts, which considerably improved the presentation of the profound learning model. With our innovation, enormous scope screening and checking of wearable gadgets can be applied to other neurodegenerative circumstances, like Parkinson’s sickness27. Notwithstanding the developing utilization of wearable contraptions in day-to-day existence, the arrangement of these frameworks, in reality, experienced a few issues because of in-home environmental factors. Parkinson’s sickness is an engine-related neurodegenerative disease. It has been demonstrated that manufactured reasoning can support the compelling screening of Parkinson’s illness in everybody and give essential data about the engine-related pathology of Parkinson’s sickness28. Research29 intended to survey whether painless dispersion weighted MRI could recognize parkinsonian disorders utilizing a computerized imaging approach. X-ray focuses on Austria, Germany, and the United States in a global examination. There were two arrangements of models, one built on a preparation and approval partner and the other surveyed in a free test companion by estimating the region under the bend (AUC) of the working trademark bends. In more than 60 specific format regions, the fundamental discoveries were revised by the partial anisotropy of free water wastage. Discoveries: Parkinson’s sickness and abnormal Parkinsonism had an AUC of 0962; numerous framework decay and moderate supranuclear paralysis had an AUC of 0897; in the test companion for direct illness correlations. These discoveries show that painless imaging strategies might recognize different kinds of Parkinsonism in a manner comparable to the current best quality level. This work utilized multisite dispersion weighted MRI companions to give a goal, confirmed, and generalizable imaging procedure to distinguish particular parkinsonian messes. No radioactive tracers were engaged with the dispersion-weighted MRI approach, which can be finished in less than 12 min on 3 T scanners worldwide. Clinical examinations for Parkinson’s infection and Parkinsonism could profit from the reception of this test, limiting misdiagnoses30. Research31 proposed a strategy for diagnosing Parkinson’s infection utilizing a troupe grouping of patient voice tests. The qualities of the classifier outfit, like the sorts and quantities of classifiers, were tried in the exploration. The examination looked at the north of twelve notable classifiers to consider its decisions. Every one of the inspected classifiers was likewise given a bunch of voice test qualities for which it performed best regarding classification. The covering strategies’ Sequential Backward Selection (SBS) was used to identify the highlights. It was then analysed in two distinct ways, both with and without the SBS technique’s feedback. Every one of the discoveries was contrasted with each other. All examinations were completed utilizing discourse tests from people living with Parkinson’s and sound people, which were uninhibitedly accessible in a data set. The University of California, Irvine (UCI) documents incorporate this data set. Research32 looked at the goals and variables taken into account in the microsimulation read-ups for dementia diagnosis. By carefully examining their references, additional papers were discovered following a thorough search of three information sources (PubMed, Soups, and Web of Science) using predetermined techniques. A quality agenda was utilized to bar those that didn’t meet the models to guarantee the nature of the investigations chosen. Those that remained had their information recovered and summed up (included set). For research that utilized AI to figure out the transformation from moderate mental disability to Alzheimer’s disease and microsimulation studies to appraise costs, the rundown of the information from the 37 included examinations uncovered the most predominant point. Neuroimaging was the most frequently utilized of the factors. Per the complete writing assessment, AI approaches, and microsimulation assume a considerable part in dementia research. Research33 explored the impact of utilizing step and quake highlights for early recognition and checking PD. Analysts used wearable sensors to gather information and utilized measurable and ways to recognize the most practical viewpoints that could best segregate between the two gatherings: those with Parkinson’s infection and solid control members. They found that factors, for example, step distance, position and swing stage qualities, heel force, and the standardized heel force were the most significant in accurately ordering the two gatherings. In research34, this issue is settled using the MSAEPD framework, which achieves both the reliant and independent nature of dataset highlights. In the wake of finding the exploration work arrangements and the issue, the Proposed MSAEPD methods are executed utilizing the following calculations. The calculations below address ridiculous, grouped, and multi-point-of-view auto-encoding systems for anticipating Parkinson’s side effects. Table 1 shows the comparative analysis of various existing research on PD detection.
Computers are given instructions to analyze data modeled after the human brain using an artificial intelligence technology known as a neural network. Deep learning is machine learning that imitates the human brain using interconnected neurons or nodes in a layered framework. Computers use this method to continuously learn from their mistakes and improve by developing an adaptive system. ANN tries to tackle complex issues more accurately, such as summarising documents or identifying faces29.
Figure 1 demonstrates the structure of the neural network designed for this problem. Numerous sectors and use cases for neural networks include the following:
Targeted marketing using social network filtering and behavioral data analysis.
Medical diagnosis using the classification of medical images.
Financial forecasts using past financial instrument data
Quality and process control
Forecasting of electrical load and energy consumption
Identification of chemical compounds
NN for Parkinson’s disease (PD) prediction.
How data moves from the input node to the output node distinguishes different artificial neural networks35. Here are a few instances:
Feed-forward neural networks: For feed-forward neural networks, processing occurs only from the input node to the output node. Every layer’s nodes are connected to the nodes in every other layer. A feed-forward network uses a feedback process to improve its predictions over time.
Backpropagation algorithm: Artificial neural networks continuously use corrective feedback loops to learn and enhance their predictive modeling. The network can see the information as it travels from the input node to the output node, passing via the many channels along the way. There is one and only one right way to go from the input node to the desired output node. The neural network employs a feedback loop that functions as follows to identify this path:
Every node in the path makes an expert prediction about the node after it.
It determines whether the guess was accurate. Node pathways that result in more accurate guesses are given greater weight values. In contrast, those that result in inaccurate guesses are given lower weight values.
The nodes repeat Step 1 after making a new prediction for the following data point using the higher-weight pathways.
Convolutional neural networks: Without sacrificing elements essential for producing an accurate prediction, the new form is simpler to process. Each hidden layer extracts and processes a different feature.
It consists of the following layers as given below:
Input Layer: The input layer includes weights and inputs.
Hidden Layer: A neural network can include many hidden layers. In the underlying layer, we find the summing and activation operations.
Output Layer: The results produced by the preceding layer are collected at the output layer. It also contains desired values to compare the deals delivered by the last layer with the desired value. These Values are already present in the output layer. It could also enhance the outcome, depth, colour, and edges.
The SVM algorithm, also known as the SVM algorithm, is a straightforward but practical Supervised Machine Learning approach that may be used to create both classification and regression models. Both linearly and non-linearly separable datasets can yield excellent results using the SVM method. The support vector machine algorithm works charm even with limited data36. There are two types of SVM. Because additional characteristics can be added to match a hyperplane instead of a two-dimensional space, it has greater flexibility for non-linear data. Support vector machine, or SVM, is an algorithm that classifies a group of provided objects using hyper-planes. It is based on the idea of “decision planes.” A support vector machine algorithm model operates as follows. In other words: It begins by identifying the boundaries or lines that correctly classify the training dataset.
Advantages of Support Vector Machine Algorithm.
The accuracy is excellent.
With small datasets, it performs incredibly well.
To convert complex non-linearly separable data into linearly separable data, Kernel SVM includes a non-linear transformation function.
It works well with datasets that contain a variety of features.
It is successful when the number of features outweighs the number of data points.
The decision function or support vectors are trained using a small fraction of training points, which increases SVM memory efficiency.
It is also possible to define individual kernels for the decision function and standard kernels.
Disadvantages of Support Vector Machine Algorithm.
more enormous datasets are difficult to use
SVM training times can occasionally be lengthy.
Due to its prolonged training period, it performs best with small sample sets.
Decision Trees are also called CART, just a more recent name. Decision Trees are crucial for machine learning’s predictive modeling and have been around for a long time. These trees are employed to solve categorization and prediction issues, as their name would imply. This tutorial introduces the foundations of these decision trees, the building blocks of more advanced classifiers like Random Forest. These models are produced by segmenting the data space and applying a simple prediction model to each segment. Recursive steps are taken here37. The partitioning can be shown graphically as a tree, hence the name.
Here is the method used by the majority of decision tree algorithms.
The tree will be built using the following top-down method:
Step 1: Start with all training instances at the root node.
Step 2: Using the dividing criteria, select an attribute (Gain Ratio or other impurity metrics, discussed below)
Step 3: Divide instances recursively according to a specified trait
Dividing stops when:
No examples are there.
All examples for an individual node are members of the same class.
No more qualities can be used to segment data further; the leaf class is the majority.
Choosing an attribute to branch off on in Step 2 above is the key to creating a decision tree. We want to select the feature that provides us with the most significant details. Information theory is the name of this discipline38. The Gini Index is the metric (or heuristic) used in CART to quantify impurity. We prioritize the qualities with lower Gini Indices.
A scalable ML algorithm for tree boosting, XG-Boost is a tree-based ensemble machine-learning technique. Extreme Gradient Boosting is referred to as XG-Boost39. In comparison with other models, XG-Boost has the following features and advantages:
There is a growing community of data scientists all around the world who are working together to improve XG-Boost.
Use in a variety of contexts, including meeting user-defined prediction challenges, ranking tasks, and classification difficulties
A library may simultaneously be used on several platforms, including OS X, Windows, and Linux.
Utilization in ongoing production by a wide range of enterprises operating in specialized markets
A collection of books designed from the ground up to be lightweight, adaptable, and easily transportable
Selecting the optimum tree model takes advantage of more precise approximations.
Boosting: After generating new training data sets from the original dataset by random sampling and replacement, the same observations may appear in many training data sets. Because of the weighting system used in the new data sets, some observations may be chosen more frequently than others.
Bagging: Each observation has an equal probability of appearing in any of the N new training data sets generated by random sampling with replacement from the original dataset.
Gradient Boosting uses a sequential tree-growth model to transform weak learners into strong ones, which adds weight to poor learners while decreasing the importance of strong ones. Each tree learns from the development of the previous tree as a result.
If the following conditions are met, take into account employing XG-Boost for any supervised machine learning task:
When there is a vast amount of data for training.
When the number of features is less than the training data.
It performs well when numerical data contains numerical and categorical features.
When performance metrics of the model are to be considered.
The dataset was collected from UCI40. The dataset defines different biological voice measures; the column lists around six recordings for each patient (Dataset link is shown in data availability statement). Table 2 shows the details of the PD dataset Attributes details, and Fig. 2 shows the PF disease count in the dataset and Fig. 3 shows correlations among features.
PD dataset details (Number of data samples with PD and without PD).
Correlations among features.
This research presents a hybrid model utilizing improved speech signals with dynamic feature breakdown using CNN and LSTM. The proposed hybrid model employs a new, pre-trained CNN with LSTM to recognize PD in linguistic features utilizing Mel-spectrograms derived from normalized voice signal and dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD).
CNN model: CNN is now a popular deep learning model influenced by biological neural systems. It helps to identify the required attributes without any manual assistance. Convolutional and pooling layers alternate, trailed with one and sometimes more fully linked layers, to help compensate for the conventional CNN model. Various kernels have been layered together as one, and convolution overlay together its inputs to help balance the convolution layer. Using a sliding-window approach, it captures the high-level characteristics of the input signal and produces feature maps as an output. A pooling layer offers a conventional down-sampling procedure by using the pooling operators to combine data within each tiny portion of the incoming feature systems before choosing the essential feature. The fully connected layer receives these features before producing the final output for the CNN model architecture. An input image’s initial layer, out of which characteristics are derived, is the convolution. A convolution filter can extract a feature map from an input image. The filter weights and height parameters are less than their receptive field. Equation 1 assumes the convolution process formulation. Cp represents the Convolutional process, m and n show the matrix row and column, f, and h show the kernel
One architecture of pre-trained Convolutional models is the pooling layer. Following the convolution layers, a max—pooling is employed to decrease the data object’s dimensions and speed up computations. CNN models are very effective at identifying and recognizing image data, and layers with full connectivity are a crucial component of these networks. The output of the previous layers is taken by the fully connected input layer, which folds them into a vector representation before using it as an insight for the following layer. Its last component is the output layer, where probabilities are predicted for each attribute. In this layer, the Soft-max function is typically chosen. In Eq. 2, the Soft-max formula (SM) is determined.
LSTM model: LSTM, an advanced model of recurrent neural networks (RNN) capable of learning long-term correlations, is meant to address the lengthy dependency problem by using short-term memory. Even the most extensive sequencing data can be processed using LSTM without reducing the gradient. Three main gates—input, outputs, and forget and storing cells make up each LSTM unit. With the help of these gates, the cell may be programmed to add or delete data from it precisely. First, stacking CNN layers can form a CNN LSTM, then LSTM layers, and finally, a dense layer at the outputs. Such architecture can establish two sub-models in a single model: a CNN Framework for extracting features and, thus, the LSTM Framework for feature interpretation over the number of iterations. Figure 4 shows the working of the proposed model.
Architecture of proposed Hybrid model for PD disease classification.
A CNN model can only process a single bit of information, converting its input pixels towards a matrix form inside the network. To enable an LSTM to develop an essential nature and adjust weights utilizing (Backpropagation training algorithm) BPTT throughout a succession of the underlying vector depictions of input data, we must perform this procedure across various data sets and images. The CNN can be standardized if a pre-trained classifier like ResNet extracts features from frames. The CNN may be untrained, so we could want to retrain it by backpropagation fault again from LSTM over numerous input data towards the CNN architecture. Figure 4 shows the architecture of the proposed CNN-LSTM model.
The proposed Hybrid model works in various phases, which include pre-processing of the data (Noise removal), extraction of Mel-spectrograms, feature extraction using pre-trained CNN model ResNet-50, and the final stage is applied for classification. The details are as follows.
This phase is responsible for the normalization of the dataset; this phase mainly deals with the noise and missing values from the dataset. The voice signals we ascend a steady condition within a specific time frame and so are not fixed. To extract features efficiently, the voice signal will be initially framed. The selected frame duration is 30 ms. Following the frame-making procedure, the popular Hamming window has been used. To provide a seamless transition among frames, 40% under partitioning is applied among each group of structures. A variable mode decomposition technique divides the accurate signals into a fixed quantity of sub-signals and patterns. This adaptive traffic signal compression method compact each sub-signal around its unique center frequency. Each modal’s frequency is analyzed three times. A Hilbert transform is employed during the initial stage to determine each modal’s frequency band. It is moved to the appropriate base band’s frequency range in stage 2. The de-modulated transmitter Gaussian smoothness is used in stage 3 to calculate the modal’s frequency.
All hertz frequencies are remapped towards the ‘mel’ scales inside the mel-spectrogram. Although mel-spectrograms are very suitable for operations replicating human hearing processing, a simple linear audio spectrum analyzer is best for uses where all frequencies remain equally important. A Spectrum centroid frequency (({F}_{SC})) can be determined by Eq. 3). ({S}_{m}) is the frequency for spectrum magnitude, and i represents a bin utilized by a spectrum.
Figure 5 shows the Mel Spectrograms extraction results using the librosa python package on the PD dataset. This graph is plotted for time and frequency (Hz).
Mel Spectrograms extraction results using Libros python package on PD dataset.
Utilizing mel-spectrogram patterns of speech signals, an approach for the identification of Parkinson’s disease is created in this work that is based on CNN and LSTM with ResNet models. In addition to ResNet-50, this design also uses mixed CNN and LSTM architectures. This research extracts features using ResNet models from mel-spectrogram patterns of dynamic Mode Decomposition audio signals (Voice). ResNet architectures are recommended for examining the impact of network depth over efficiency.
Hyperparameters are specific variables or weights that control how an algorithm learns. As was already said, CNN offers a wide variety of Hyperparameters. We can get the most out of CNN by adjusting its Hyperparameters. The most powerful deep learning model, like ResNet-50, is known for automatically tweaking thousands of learnable parameters to identify patterns and regularities in the data. The decision variables are selected at each node. A robust algorithm is CNN-LSTM. As a result, it will have many huge Hyperparameters and other design decisions. These are fixed parameters manually supplied to the algorithm during training41. We applied a grid search optimization method (GSOM) for hyperparameter tuning. This helps to select the best parameters.
The maximum depth of the tree, the number of trees to develop the number of variables to consider while creating each tree, the number of samples on a leaf, and the percentage of observations used to generate a tree are examples Hyperparameters in tree-based models. The principles this kernel covers apply to any other sophisticated ML method, even though we concentrate on improving CNN-LSTM Hyperparameters in this kernel. The parameters of the learning task define the optimization objective and the metric to be calculated at each step. The optimization process consists of the following four steps:
Create a domain space: The input values are considered from the dataset taken in the domain space.
Define an objective function: Any function that returns an actual number we want to minimize can be the objective function. In this instance, we aim to reduce a machine learning model’s validation error about the Hyperparameters. Accuracy should be maximized if that is the actual value. Following that, the function ought to return the opposite of that metric.
The optimization algorithm creates the alternative objective function and chooses the values to be evaluated.
Results: The algorithm uses the results to develop a model that specifies the learning problem and the accompanying learning objective. The results are score or value pairs.
Table 3 shows the proposed CNN-LSTM architecture description, and Fig. 6 shows the working of the proposed model. Firstly, the spatial characteristics are extracted using the CNN, which has two convolution layers and outputs sizes of 32 and 64. With both convolution layers, a kernel having a 3 × 3 size is employed. A Max-pooling layer with the size 2 × 2 is placed after every convolution layer to decrease the dimension of map characteristics. The second step, which comprises three layers comprising the LSTM layer, the fully connected (FC), and the output layer (OL), receives the high-dimensional characteristics retrieved again from the CNN phase. There are 128 nodes within each of the fully connected layers and LSTM. A soft-max layer represents the probabilities of each intake at the outcome for class prediction and classification results.
Working of the proposed model.
To limit the negative consequences of over-fitting issues and improve the capacity of the classification algorithm in imbalanced data, we applied L2Reg and dropout approaches. We performed several tests to determine the optimal regularization hyper-parameter, considering the dropout method’s posterior distribution. A cost of λ utilized for L2Reg is assigned to (λ: 0.10), whereas the dropout method with the mathematical probability (P) lies from 0.1 to 0.5. A dropout value is applied after the 2nd pooling and fully linked layers. Since the dropouts can result in specific data loss within the learning models, we begin with a lower dropout probability and keep increasing it to limit the transmission of that loss to the subsequent layers.
The proposed CNN-LSTM model is implemented in the python language in Keras.
# Pseudo code for CNN-LSTM
# define CNN model
CNN = Sequential()
# define the LSTM model
model = Sequential()
model.add(TimeDistributed(cnn, …))
This research has not included any experiments on humans or animals. This research has taken all the necessary permission or License from authority from all subjects and/or their legal guardian(s) (where applicable).
This research proposed a hybrid and existing ML model implemented using Python and various performance measuring parameters, i.e., accuracy, true positive rate, and false positive rate. In the first phase of execution, we executed the proposed model and different individual machine-learning algorithms. Depending on the nature of the dataset, we finalized four machine learning algorithms, i.e., Neural Network, SVM, CART, and X-Boost. In this work, the tenfold cross-validation is applied while executing these algorithms using Python. The dataset is then segmented towards 10 equal components to train the model on nine parts before putting it to testing on the final part. This procedure is carried out ten times, with each element serving as the criteria for evaluation set just once. After that, we take a mean of the outcomes to approximate how well the model works.
Various performance measuring parameters are calculated to measure the proposed Hybrid and existing models’ performance. Equation (4) represents accuracy, (5) Recall, (6) Precision, and (7) f1-score.
Figure 7 demonstrates the performance of the neural network, and Fig. 8 shows the receiving operating Characteristics results from NN (TPR vs. FPR). This model has gained an 87.69% accuracy level. This model’s AUC and Gini values are 0.939 & 0.878, respectively. Figure 9 shows the Heat map of PD dataset features.
Simulation results from NN.
Receiving operating characteristics results from NN.
Heat map of PD dataset features.
Figure 10 demonstrates the performance of the SVM model, and Fig. 11 shows the receiving operating Characteristics Results from SVM. This model has gained an 89.23% accuracy level. This model’s AUC and Gini values are 0.899 & 0.797, respectively. In this experiment, the input dataset is the multiple features, and the output variable is the status. The classification accuracy obtained is 87.69% and 89.23% for neural networks and SVM, respectively. An AUC measures the overall effectiveness of a categorization system over all feasible cut-off points. AUC may be considered the percentage of times a given positive example is ranked higher than a negative example by the model.
Simulation results from SVM.
Receiving operating Characteristics results—SVM.
Figures 12 and 13 show receiving operating characteristics results from CART shows the CART’s performance. This model has gained a 93.33% accuracy level. This model’s AUC and Gini values are 0.909 & 0.817, respectively.
Simulation results from CART.
Receiving operating characteristics results—CART.
Figures 14 and 15 show’ receiving operating characteristics results from XG-boost the performance of the XG-Boost model is depicted. This model has gained an 83.59% accuracy level. This model’s AUC and Gini value is 0. 9 & 0.8 respectively. Figure 16 demonstrates the performance of the proposed model, and Fig. 17 shows the receiving operating characteristics results from the Proposed Hybrid Model.
Results from XG-boost.
Receiving operating characteristics results -XG-boost.
Proposed Model Performance.
Receiving operating characteristics results from proposed hybrid model.
Figure 18 shows the Proposed Model Training and Testing Performance Curve. This model has gained a 99.49% accuracy level. This model’s AUC and Gini values are 1.0 & 1.0, respectively. Figure 19 shows the simulation results of proposed Accuracy vs. Val_accuracy and the Loss Vs Val_Loss. The proposed model shows more than 93% accuracy and a better validation loss. Figure 20 shows the outcome of the proposed hybrid model for the PD dataset with the healthy class and disease class.
Proposed Model Training and Testing Performance Curve.
Proposed model Simulation results (a) Accuracy vs. Val_accuracy and (b) Loss vs. Val_Loss.
Parkinson’s disease outcome by the proposed model.
The proposed method has gained significant accuracy and minimized the high variance and over fitting issues. The accuracy level achieved in Neural Network, CART, SVM and X-Boost models is 72.69%, 84.21%, 73.51%, and 90.81%. The proposed hybrid model achieves an accuracy of 93.51%, significantly outperforming traditional ML models utilizing static features in detecting Parkinson’s disease. In comparison to this, the classification accuracy obtained by the proposed model is 93.49%, as shown in Table 4. Figure 21 depicts the performance comparison of various machine learning algorithms. Table 5 presents a performance comparison of precision, recall and f-measure of the proposed and existing method on the PD dataset.
Performance Comparison of Proposed and existing models.
The proposed model achieves better results. Clinical care and research can benefit from the future use of the proposed model by producing rich, trustworthy, and sensitive datasets that can be utilized for medical decision-making in the interim between doctor’s visits. It’s necessary to do more AI-based research with more significant patient populations. The proposed model is superior to others and efficient also. The performance analysis and outcomes of the proposed hybrid methodology provide specific details of the findings (Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and Tables 4, 5). These images are inputs to the ResNet structures after being extracted from the mel-spectrograms using dynamic mode decomposition audio samples. Using FC 1000-layers, ResNet systems’ extremely high observed features are retrieved. The features are fed into the LSTM in addition to generating possible hidden gates utilizing CNN to diagnose PD disease. Softmax was used to classify the data at the end. A tenfold cross-validation method was used to deconstruct the data needed for training and testing. The model parameters are applied during the training phase to ensure the models are complete and adequate. The results of the proposed model prove that using LSTM and ResNet not only improves the performance of CNN but also enhances the accuracy of PD analysis.
In detecting Parkinson’s disease, we proposed a hybrid model using CNN and LSTM. We also used the well-known Machine learning and Ensemble learning with the Hyperparameter tuning method to compare the proposed model performance. The severity of Parkinson’s disease was evaluated in this research using the online PD dataset. The proposed model is more precise than the approaches currently in use. In addition, it is found that using this model score for classification outperforms using score alone, suggesting that this measure is preferable for severity prediction. The accuracy level achieved in Neural Network, CART, SVM and X-Boost models is 72.69%, 84.21%, 73.51%, and 90.81%. The results show that under these four machine approaches of tenfold cross-validation and dataset splitting without samples overlapping one individual, the proposed hybrid model achieves an accuracy of 93.51%, significantly outperforming traditional ML models utilizing static features in the detection of Parkinson’s disease. Even though we only employed a limited dataset, our proposed approach’s accuracy can still be increased by using a larger dataset, more instances of each severity class, a combined database of patient voice data and other parameters like gait and handwriting traits. In future work, we will overcome the time complexity of the proposed model.
The authors declare that this research is conducted on open source online dataset. The detail of the dataset is as follows: Parkinson Speech Dataset with Multiple Types of Sound Recordings Data Set. Access on 10th october 2022, collected from online UCI, open dataset: https://archive.ics.uci.edu/dataset/301/parkinson+speech+dataset+with+multiple+types+of+sound+recordings.
Convolutional neural network
Long short-term memory networks
Parkinson’s disease
Dynamic mode decomposition
Classification and regression tree
Support vector machine
Extreme gradient boosting
Cross approval
Inertial estimation units
Deep multi-facet perceptron
Artificial neutral networks
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Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chandigarh University, Chandigarh, Punjab, India
Umesh Kumar Lilhore, Sarita Simaiya & Pawan Kumar
Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Haryana, Gurugram, India
Surjeet Dalal
Department of Computer Engineering and Application, GLA University, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India
Neetu Faujdar
School of Computing and Informatics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, USA
Martin Margala
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, 313601, Rajasthan, India
Prasun Chakrabarti
Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Tulika Chakrabarti
Apex Institute of Technology, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, India
Sarita Simaiya
College of Computing Sciences & IT, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Pawan Kumar
Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Pugazhenthan Thangaraju & Hemasri Velmurugan
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Conceptualization, U.K.L. and P.T.; methodology, U.K.L. and S.D.; software, U.K.L. and P.K.; validation, S.S. and T.C.; analysis, N.F.; writing—review and editing, H.V. and P.C.; visualization, M.M.
Correspondence to Pugazhenthan Thangaraju.
The authors declare no competing interests. We confirmed that all methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.
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Lilhore, U.K., Dalal, S., Faujdar, N. et al. Hybrid CNN-LSTM model with efficient hyperparameter tuning for prediction of Parkinson’s disease. Sci Rep 13, 14605 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-41314-y
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